This decade

 

Response to most pressing matters often leaves no time for attending the most important ones. Let’s take a break. The pandemic will await our return.

 

Revised, Pre-edited

A. Science, technology and philosophy
A1 Science. C. P. Snow, in Two Cultures (1958) noted that the role of science in society is central. He then upset the educated elite by claiming that to be ignorant of science is to be ignorant. Was Snow right? Consider information technology and biotechnology.

A2 Technology
A2.1 Information technology. 1958 was also the year when the integrated circuit was invented. That invention marked the advent of the explosive growth of the semiconductor field, which in 1972 led to the introduction of the first single-chip 8-bit general-purpose microprocessor the Intel 8008 (Appendix 1). The 8008 became the original member of Intel’s X-86 microprocessor family, which by the end of the 1970’s became dominant worldwide. Today, any person with a cell phone and internet access has free information that exceeds in value the information that was available to the richest person in the world in 1958.

A2.2 Biotechnology. Now, biotechnology is advancing faster than information technology. And it is about to transform human life on Earth. Gene editing makes it possible to introduce heritable modifications in genomes. Making heritable enhancement to the genomes of a human population this century may trigger the onset of the next phase of human evolution. Snow proved right.

A3 Philosophy. But it is philosophy that is the most important and most troubled knowledge area. It is also the most urgent. Only philosophy can provide the needed guide as to what ought to be done in confronting the impending challenges. It is this promise of philosophy that is our focus here.

B. Consciousness
B1 The recent change in the status of consciousness.
Physicalism (Neurath 1929) defines existence as physical. It thus denies by definition the existence of non-physical consciousness. Around the turn of the century Francis Crick (1983) and Christof Koch (2004) made the study of consciousness the main challenge of neuroscience. Now the problem of consciousness is recognized as the central problem of knowledge.

B2 The key issue turned out to be empirical, not philosophical.
B2.1 Mental faculties are innate. Biology and neuroscience show that mental faculties are innate. This is an empirical, not philosophical, finding.

B2.2. The tabula rasa assumption. John Locke (1689) postulated that the brain of the newborn is like a blank slate (tabula rasa) until it receives sensations from the outside world. David Hume (1750) extended the tabula rasa assumption to cognition. The tabula rasa assumption is the most basic tenet of Empiricism, which underlies current theories of knowledge.

B3 The main epistemological consequence of the fact that mental faculties are innate. Sensations, being innate, are private, subjective, or phenomenal. Like all sensations, this is also true of the sensory modalities of exteroception, by which the external physical world is knowable. Hence,. knowledge of the physical is inferred from the phenomenal. This conclusion confers epistemological priority on the phenomenal relative to the physical. Thus, the phenomenal is not reducible to the physical. Put differently, the phenomenal cannot be said to be a by-product of brain function. Instead, the physical brain instantiates, or realizes phenomenal states.

B4 Consequence of replacing the tabula rasa by its direct opposite. Making explicit the epistemological consequences of replacing the tabula rasa assumption by its direct opposite would constitute the most far-reaching advance in the foundation of knowledge since the tabula rasa was introduced some 300 years ago,

C. Max Planck on delays in accepting new scientific advances
C1 The sociology of knowledge problem. In The Structure of Scientific Revolutions Thomas Kuhn (1962) noted that the acceptance of a new scientific paradigm is often delayed by decades, naming this phenomenon “The sociology of knowledge problem”. Kuhn quotes Max Planck (1950) who wrote: “A new scientific truth does not triumph by convincing its opponents and making them see the light, but rather because its opponents eventually die and a new generation grows up that is familiar with it.”

C2 The current situation. This problem is now manifested in the delayed undertaking of the reconstruction of the foundation of knowledge, now that the tabula assumption proved to be factually false. The philosophic community by and large has proved unable to set aside the tabula rasa legacy and for this reason it does not acknowledge yet the verdict of science.

D. Urgency
D1 Current science makes it possible to derive universals of human conduct from innate commonalities of human nature. The outdated theory of knowledge has severed this vital connection.

D2 The fact that we control our future evolution proves that human history is unidirectional.
Hence, the past can no longer be a guide for the future. Worse yet, historical normative institutions are unlikely to be equal to the task of confronting impending upheavals. It is imperative, for example, to bridge the current cultural chasm separating East especially in connection with gene editing.

E. This decade
E1 The time to update the foundation of knowledge is now.
E1.1 Neural prosthetics for the born deaf or blind. Cochlear implants that were developed for children with impaired hearing proved effective in eliciting sensations of sound in the born deaf. In cases when the auditory nerve is dysfunctional the electrodes are implanted not in the cochlea but in hearing-related brain loci. The born deaf in such cases too experience sensations of sound upon electrical stimulation. This fact is a conclusive proof that the experienced sensation of sound is innate – it is neither a property of air vibration nor does it originate from the ears. Similarly, neural prostheses that have been developed for children with impaired vision would elicit sensations of light in the born blind. I expect that this will be demonstrated by 2025.

E1.2 Expected impact. The philosophic community has managed to remain oblivious to the fact that auditory prosthesis for the born deaf prove that the sensation of sound is innate. The fact that sensations of sound are innate is counterintuitive. But, that so, is the sensation of light, is jarring. The shock that the sensation of light is not an attribute of the electromagnetic spectrum would bring to an abrupt end the 300 year-old tabula rasa tradition. I, therefore, expect this decade to mark the advent of a new era where philosophical reconstruction would be central to the knowledge enterprise and serves as a survival manual guide to the future.

 

Appendix

Advent of the microprocessor as an experiment in applied philosophy

 

K. My applied philosophy experiment in information technology
K1 While I was a doctoral student in philosophy at the Graduate Center of the City University of New York I found my views to be out of the mainstream. I then put them to a reality test. It led to the introduction in 1972 of the Intel 8008 single-chip general-purpose microprocessor. The 8008 was the original member of Intel’s X-86 microprocessor family, which by the end of the 1970s became dominant worldwide.

K2 I am neither an electronic engineer nor a computer scientist
I consider the foundation of knowledge to be a unique problem solving area. This view was, and still is, outside the mainstream. Analytic philosophy, for example, confines its focus on clarification rather than the solution of basic knowledge problems.

K3 On the difference between science and technology. Technology is an applied science. The focus is on applying existing knowledge toward an optimal solution to a real-life problem. A common view is that there are no panaceas. There is also a preference for use of proven methods. In contrast, a basic scientist seeks a solution with greater generality, specificity and economy.

K4 Information technology prior to the microprocessor
IBM. During the 1960’s IBM dominated the information processing field with large, centralized time-sharing computers. The prevailing view was that computing, like electric generation, is best centralized.

K5 Office equipment. Offices used a variety of special-purpose machines such as word-processors, electronic calculators, copiers and fax machines.

K6 The semiconductor revolution. During the 1960’s the number of transistors per-unit-area of silicon increased by a thousand-fold and the cost-per-transistor dropped by nearly the same factor.

L. My decision to subject my philosophy to real-life test
L1 Computer Terminal Corporation (CTC). CTC of San Antonio, Texas, developed a computer terminal and contacted the Wall Street firm of Philips Appel & Walden (PAW) to raise money by an Initial Public Offering (IPO). I evaluated CTC on behalf of PAW and recommended that the IPO take place. This was despite the fact that I found CTC’s initial product, the Datapoint 3300 computer terminal, to be conceptually obsolete. The reason was that Austin (Gus) Roche , its VP for R&D accepted my recommendations that 1) CTC develop a computer central processing unit (CPU) and incorporate into their next product and 2) then seek implementing that CPU as a single-chip microprocessor.

L2 The CTC’s Datapoint 2200. CTC’s next product, the Datapoint 2200 did have a CPU. But in 1970, CTC decided against implementing that CPU as a microprocessor. On hearing that I returned to San Antonio and met with the president, Phil Ray. He granted my request that I may offer Intel to develop a microprocessor chip based on the Datapoint 2200 CPU for the general market.

L3 Intel. I then met with Robert (Bob) , a co-founder and initial president of Intel. I conveyed to him my view that the 4-bit chip that Intel was developing for Busicom, a Japanese electronic calculator consortium was a special-purpose device with a limited market. In contrast, I added an 8-bit microprocessor based on the Datapoint 2200 CPU would unleash a technological revolution. Noyce responded by saying that Intel would undertake the 8-bit project after completing the 4-bit chip for Busicom. Intel began development of the CTC-based chip in 1971 and introduced it in April 1972.

L4 Q1 Corporation. In December 1972, Q1 Corporation, the company I formed, delivered the world’s first personal computer based on an 8-bit general purpose microprocessor, the Intel 8008.

L5 The 1975 IEEE Conference. In 1975 based on Noyce’s recommendation, I organized and chaired the opening session of the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) first world conference on the Microcomputer Revolution

M. What did that experiment prove to me
For me that interlude was an experiment to prove, to myself at least, that philosophy of science has the capacity to provide top-own solutions that are not derivable by bottom-up reasoning. The result of the philosophical experiment proved to me that this is indeed the case. But there was neither the need or the opportunity to make explicit to the reasoning that guided my decisions. My focus then returned to central issues at the foundation of knowledge.

Quote of the week

 

 

 

Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck

 

 

A new scientific truth does not triumph by convincing its opponents and making them see the light, but rather because its opponents eventually die and a new generation grows up that is familiar with it. … another instance of the fact that the future lies with the youth.

 

Max Planck.  Scientific Autobiography.  1950.  p. 33, 97
Cited by Thomas S. Kuhn. The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. University of Chicago Press. 1970.  p. 151

Interoception and the foundation of knowledge

 

Pre-edited

 

A. Introduction

A1 Consciousness. Consciousness is the most important and most troubled knowledge area. It is addressed below. The initial focus is on interoception.

A2 Mental faculties

A2.1 Interoception. Hunger, thirst and other sensory modalities by which a person is directly aware of an internal state of the body.

A2.2 Awareness. Awareness is exemplified by wakefulness as contrasted to dreamless sleep or comatose condition. Awareness is the necessary background condition to enable experiencing particular foreground events.

A2.3 Cognitive knowledge. Cognitive mechanisms are innate. They involve generalization and conceptualization of knowledge.

A2.4 Exteroception. Vision and other sensory modalities by which the external world is made observable

A2.5 The esthetic sense. The positive affect resulting from innate pattern recognition.

 

B. Life

B1 Life and thermodynamics. Except in absolute zero temperature macroscopic physical systems move from less probable to more probable states. Organisms, while alive, defer that outcome by using ingested energy to drive negative feedback mechanisms that maintain each vital variable vital (e.g. glucose) within its narrow set-points, which are far from thermodynamic equilibrium.

B2 Homeostasis. Homeostasis is a state where each vital variable is within its set-points. Like health, homeostasis is a goal-state, while the negative feedback mechanisms are goal-oriented. Homeostasis characterizes metabolic life.

 

C. The function of interoception

C1 Normal departure from homeostasis. Depletion of glucose level is an example of departure from homeostasis that requires associated mechanisms for its restoration.  In primates and some mammals, interoceptive subjective state is elicited prompting a voluntary behavior aimed at restoring homeostasis.

C2 Stages of the interoceptive response sequence

C2.1 Initiation. Restoration of homeostasis requires behavioral response.An interoceptive sensation with a negative affect, such as hunger or thirst is elicited.

C2.2 Cognition. Interoception triggers cognition. Cognition selects one of possible alternative actions and triggers the brain motor areas.

C2.3 Behavior. The motor brain triggers behavior intended to secure needed satisfaction.

C2.4 Need satisfaction. Need satisfaction (e.g. eating or drinking) is associated with pleasure. It is then followed by a sense of satiety.

C2.5 Return to non-conscious homeostatic regulation. The sense of satiety is brief. Then automatic non-conscious homeostatic regulation resumes.

 

D. Some epistemological aspects of interoception

D1 Interoceptive sensations are innate and private. The newborn possesses interoceptive capacities prior to post-natal experience: they are innate. An interoceptive sensation is confined to the single individual who experiences it directly. Thus, interoceptive sensation is private, and thus subjective.

D2 Non-physicality. The physical are events locatable in time and space and are publicly observable. Interoceptive sensations are private and therefore do not satisfy the physicality criterion.

D3 Interoception manifests the causal efficacy of subjective states. The fine elicitation and withdrawal of interoceptive subjective states indicates that evolution takes subjective states to be causally efficacious.

D4 Interoception is goal-oriented. Interoception is an extension of the goal-oriented homeostatic mechanisms.

D5 Universality. While some mental attributes differ among individuals, interoceptive sensations are universal.

 

E. Human nature

E1 Innate commonalities. Innate interoceptive commonalities constitute the core of human nature.

E2 Human conduct. Innate commonalities of human nature is the ground for universals of human conduct.

 

F. Interoception and epistemology

We find that interoception is innate, subjective, universal, goal-oriented and causally efficacious. Our 300-year-old theory of knowledge is outdated: it denies the existence of any of the above attributes of interoception.

 

G. A claim

To my knowledge, the above is the first proof for the existence of commonalities of human nature and its basis for universals of human conduct.

Philosophy

 

Philosophy is the widest scope knowledge area. However, the philosophical community, by and large, is still the prisoner of centuries-old misconceptions. These misconceptions are toxic: scientists must narrow their focus; hence, their consensus-based philosophy is outdated. Consequently, updating the foundation of knowledge is now the most important and most urgent challenge confronting humanity.

Philosophy, the microprocessor and the next phase in information technology

 

Daniel Alroy 

 

A.          Philosophy has problem-solving power

While I was a philosophy student at the Graduate Center of the City University of New York, I found that philosophy, like mathematics and the scientific method, provides top-down knowledge to any given basic science which is not obtainable by bottom-up reasoning from within that science. This view was, and still is, outside the mainstream. I decided to put this view to a reality test and chose the information technology field. It led to the development of Intel’s x86 first micro-processor, the Intel 8008. Outlined below is the chronology of the related events.

 

B.          Chronology

B1 1967. IBM. Prior to the introduction of the microprocessor, the dominant information-processing paradigm was to use terminals to time-share a single multimillion-dollar computer. The dramatic drop in the cost of transistors implied, to me, that this dominant paradigm was no longer viable. In 1967 I met with Jacques Maisonrouge, who was at the time the President of IBM World Trade Corporation. I urged that IBM consider designing user-dedicated computers. Maisonrouge arranged for me to meet with J. C. R. Licklider. It turned out that Licklider was one of the main proponents of remote time-sharing computing: that meeting proved pointless.

B2 1968. Advanced Memory Systems (AMS). Early in 1968 a new company, Advanced Memory System (AMS) in Santa Clara, California sought to raise funds on Wall Street through an Initial Public Offering (IPO) and approached the Wall Street firm Philips, Appel & Walden (PAW). James Walden, PAW’s Managing Partner, asked me to evaluate AMS. AMS was the first company to develop a memory chip with 1,024 (1 kilobit) transistors. It was a milestone. Until then computer memory technology involved magnetic cores. Transistors offered several key advantages but were too expensive at chip density below 1,024 transistors. At my recommendation PAW did go forward with the IPO.

B3 1968. Carver Mead. Prior to recommending AMS’ IPO, I met with Professor Carver Mead at California Institute of Technology and sought his views about the physical limits of increasing transistor density and the rate of its continuance.  Professor Mead, in turn, gave me a copy of the business plan of Auto scribe, in which he was involved, soliciting my comments.

 

C.          Computer Terminal Corporation (CTC)

C1 In May 1969, Computer Terminal Corporation (CTC) of San Antonio, Texas raised $4 million through an initial public offering (IPO). That IPO took place following my evaluation of CTC on behalf of the Wall Street firm Philips, Appel & Walden. CTC’s initial product, the Datapoint 3300, was a terminal for information-processing on a remote, shared computer. I considered that product to be conceptually outdated.

C2 During the 1960’s the number of transistors per-unit-area of memory chip increased by a thousand-fold, which represented a nearly a thousand-fold drop in cost-per-transistor. This trend led me to conclude persons ought to have a computer at the point-of-use.

C3 My recommendations for CTC’s next product. At my recommendation CTC designed a general-purpose central processing unit (CPU) of a computer for incorporation in its next product, the Datapoint 2200. I also urged CTC to have that CPU implemented as a general-purpose microprocessor. After considering the matter, CTC decided against doing so.

C4 Obtaining CTC’s consent to develop a chip of its CPU. In 1970 I learned of CTC’s decision not to seek implementation of the Datapoint 2200 CPU as a microprocessor. I then met with Phil Ray, CTC’s president. He consented to my request that I may propose to Intel to develop, produce and sell such microprocessor to the general market.

 

D.          My proposal was accepted by Intel 

D1 Intel’s initial product was semiconductor memory chips. Intel’s customers were companies that produced large computers and minicomputers. Robert Noyce, the President of Intel, was said to be apprehensive about selling microprocessors in apparent competition with their customers.

D2 The initial priority was to develop the 4-bit chip. In 1969 Intel received a request for quotations from CTC and from Busicom of Japan, a consortium of electronic calculator companies. Intel decided to first develop a 4-bit microprocessor for Busicom, in effect shelving the CTC-related work.

D3 My meeting with Robert Noyce. When I met with Robert Noyce, in 1970 I proposed that Intel develop, produce and market a microprocessor based on the Datapoint 2200 CPU. First, I pointed out that the general-purpose computer is language dependent. For this reason, it must have a word-width sufficient to represent both numerals and alphabetical characters. But, the 4-bit word width of the microprocessor Intel was developing for Busicom was insufficient to represent alphabetic characters. For this reason, the 4-bit chip was a limited-purpose device and would have a limited market and product life.

In contrast, I added that developing and marketing a micro-processor based on the Datapoint 2200 would unleash a technological revolution. Robert Noyce accepted my proposal, saying that Intel will develop that microprocessor after completing the development of the 4-bit chip for Busicom. In 1971 the 4-bit chip was introduced, and Intel began developing the Datapoint 2200 CPU-based 8-bit microprocessor chip, initially designated 1201 and 8008 upon introduction in 1972.

D4 The Datapoint 2200 CPU-based microprocessor. The Intel 8008 microprocessor was introduced in 1972. A second generation of the 8008, the Intel 8080 was introduced in 1974 and became an instant success. The 8008 and the 8080 then became the initial members of Intel’s x86 microprocessor family.

 

E.          Q1 Corporation

E1 1972. Q1 Corporation, a company I formed, delivered to Litcom, a division of Litton Industries on Long Island, New York, the world’s first personal computer that utilized a microprocessor based on the Datapoint 2200 CPU architecture, the Intel 8008.

E2 1973. Q1 distributor in Hong Kong, Q1 (Far East) delivered the first microprocessor-based personal computers to Hong Kong, Taiwan and Australia. In Europe, Nixdorf Computer of Paderborn, Germany, contracted Q1 to develop systems software for the 8008 and the anticipated second generation 8080 microprocessor.

E3 1974. Q1 delivered the world’s first 8080 microprocessor-based computer systems to the Israel Supply Mission in New York City.

E4 1975. NASA. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) ordered Q1 computers for all its eleven worldwide bases.

E5 1975. IEEE. In April 1975 the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) organized in New York City the international convention called The Microcomputer Revolution. At the invitation of IEEE, I organized and chaired the opening session. Carver Mead was the keynote speaker (Mead 1975). I am neither an electronic engineer nor a computer scientist. I understand IEEE’s invitation followed the recommendation by Intel’s president, Robert Noyce. He had direct knowledge of my contribution to the emergence of the first member of the x86 microprocessor family, the Intel 8008.

E6 1979. UK. The National Enterprise Board of (NEB) of UK Government formed Q1 (Europe) Ltd. to manufacture, sell and service Q1 computer systems in Europe.

 

F.          The Microsoft / Intel synergy

F1 Microsoft. The introduction of the Intel 8080 prompted Bill Gates and Paul Allen to quit Harvard and form Microsoft. Microsoft developed software, including the Windows Operating System, for the Intel 8080 and subsequent members of the Intel’s x86 microprocessor family.

F2 Wintel. The coupling of the Windows operating system with Intel’s x86 became known as Wintel.

F3 Dominance. By the end of 1970s, Wintel became dominant worldwide.

F4 Industry standard. In 1981 IBM entered the personal computer field adopting Wintel as the core of its personal computer line, solidifying Wintel as the industry standard.

 

G.    Philosophy and the next phase in Information Technology

G1 Philosophy does have unique problem solving power. My experience with the introduction of the general-purpose microprocessor confirmed, to me, that philosophy has unique top-down problem-solving power. Others are not in the position to reach such conclusion. It is a matter of consequence to test and determine whether or not philosophy has unique problem-solving power. One way to do so is the following.

G2 Toward recognition of the problem solving power of philosophy. While information technology has changed since the introduction of microprocessors, reasoning has not. The information technology field is now due for another transformation. Like in the past, bottom-up reasoning from within the technology has not proved sufficient to identify what the next transformation of the field would be. Once again, top-down philosophical reasoning enables outlining a new IT area that has greater generality, specificity and economy than any bottom-up alternative currently under discussion. The implementation of such a plan would constitute a crucial test whether the claimed top-down philosophical problem solving is real. If confirmed, the success of such project should finally lead to the recognition, study, and utilization of philosophy as a unique problem-solving methodology.

 

H.          Current focus

Following my philosophical experiment in the information technology field my personal focus has returned to matters relating to the foundation of knowledge. Here is the gist of it. Our current theories of knowledge are based on a 300-year-old tabula rasa assumption, which denies that human possess any innate mental faculty such as sensations, emotions and cognition. Current biology and neuroscience have proved the tabula rasa assumption false. It is now necessary to replace that false assumption by its direct opposite and then make explicit the epistemological and normative implication of the change. Doing so would provide humanity with a normative conceptual framework that is currently absent.

Here is one example. Science and technology inform about what is known or can be done. Neither can address questions as what ought to be done. This crippling situation is removed with the expected reconstruction of knowledge. Some current work on using neural prostheses to help the born deaf and born blind see could trigger this decade the needed reconstruction of knowledge. I have been personally involved in this situation.

 

I.          Conclusion

Any major information technology company is welcome to contact me if it would like information in order to determine whether to explore further the philosophical top-down outline of the next major IT phase.

Consciousness

 

Daniel Alroy
daniel.alroy1@gmail.com

Pre-edited

Current science shows that we possess innate elementary sensations, emotions and cognitive function. Some 300 years ago John Locke introduced a theory of knowledge based on the denial of this fact, concluding that the mind of the newborn is like a blank slate (tabula rasa). This factually false tabula rasa assumption underlies theories of knowledge to this day.

It is now necessary to replace the tabula rasa assumption by its direct opposite and make explicit the epistemological and normative implications of such reconstruction. It would be the most fundamental advance in knowledge since the tabula rasa was introduced some 300 years ago.

Consider consciousness. It is the central fact of personal existence. Present-day theories of knowledge are unable to explain what consciousness is and what it does. Presented below is an abbreviated proof that non-physical consciousness exists. To my knowledge it is the first to do so.

The physical is said to be publicly observable. In contrast, vision, and other sensory modalities of exteroception by which the physical world outside our skin is observed are subjective, private, phenomenal or mental. Thus, the physical is inferred from the mental. This conclusion confers epistemological priority on the mental relative to the physical.

For these reasons, the mental cannot be inferred from, or reduced to the physical. Put differently, the physical brain elicits – not produce – phenomenal states.

Neural Prostheses for the Born Blind and Philosophy

Neural prostheses that have been developed for children who became deaf elicit sensations of sound also in the born deaf.  This fact is a conclusive proof that the experienced sound is innate and not a property of air vibration.  Similarly, I expect that the same would be demonstrated for vision next decade, perhaps as early as 2023:  neural prostheses that have been developed for children who became blind would elicit sensations of light in the born blind.  It would constitute a conclusive proof that the experienced sensation is innate and not a property of the electromagnetic spectrum.

Such demonstration is sure to create a shock in the general public.  In philosophy, it would bring to a final end the tabula rasa assumption that underlies current theories of knowledge. Making explicit the implications of replacing the tabula rasa assumption by its direct opposite would be the most basic change in the foundation of knowledge in some 300 years since John Locke introduced it as the basic tenet that underlies Empiricism.

 

If the mind is causally efficacious, physics is in crisis

 

A.    Voluntary action, imagination and causality.

Any voluntary action activates the motor cortex in a selective manner.

Such selective activation also occurs when the voluntary action is just imagined.

Imagination is private and subjective. The activation of the motor cortex is physical.

This ordinary example proves that the mind is causally efficacious.

It is taken for granted in physics that only physical causes can have physical effects.

Hence, there is a crisis in the foundation of physics.

 

B.         On the innateness of mental faculties

B1        Some sensations, emotions and cognitions are innate in humans

B2        As such they are private, subjective, mental or phenomenal.

B3        The intra-subjectively and inter-subjectively consistent defines existence

B4        The physical is that which is publicly observable and thus locatable in space

B5        The phenomenal satisfies the existence criteria

B6        The phenomenal does not satisfy the physicality criteria

B7        B5 & B6 prove that non-physical consciousness exists

 

C.         The epistemological priority of the phenomenal over the physical

C1        The sensations by which the physical world is knowable are innate.

C2        Hence, the physical is inferred from the phenomenal.

C3      This confers on the phenomenal epistemological priority relative to the physical.

C4        The brain elicits, not produces, phenomenal states.

C5        The phenomenal is not reducible to the physical.

 

D.        Spatial localizability is a physical attribute – the phenomenal is ubiquitous

 

E.       Summary

E1        Some sensations emotions and cognitions are innate and thus private.

E2        The physical is inferred from the phenomenal.

E3        The phenomenal is ubiquitous.

E4        The mind is causally efficacious.

E5        The foundation of physics requires reconstruction